I had a similar problem a while back and it ended up being some files stuck on my sd card that I couldn't locate.
I figured out that that was the problem by going into settings -> sd card -> and unmounting the sd card
After doing that, I could install/update the apps that had problems.
I permanently fixed the issue by formatting the sdcard. Before I did that, I backed up my pictures and music and stuff that I knew wasn't causing problems. After formatting, I copied my pictures and music back, and I haven't have a problem since.