After much toil, I have found a simple, free, native solution to exporting contacts from Outlook to the Droid X without using Gmail.
This is an Outlook 2007 solution...other versions should be similar:
1) In Outlook go to FILE, IMPORT/EXPORT
2) EXPORT TO A FILE
3) COMMA SEPARATED VALUES (WINDOWS)
4) Export from CONTACTS
5) Put the file some place easy to find (like your desktop)
6) Plug your phone in via USB.
7) Pull down your status bar and make sure your USB connection is set to USB MASS STORAGE.
8) On your PC click on the FOLDER option to view files.
9) Either copy and paste, or drag and drop your contacts (.csv) file on to the root directory of the SD card.
10) Unplug your phone.
11) Go into CONTACTS (on your phone)
12) Hit the MENU button
13) Select MORE
14) Select IMPORT/EXPORT
15) Select IMPORT from SD card
You're done. Now...in theory you should be able to start at step 11 and EXPORT from SD card to reverse the process and move contacts from your phone back into Outlook. I'm guessing you would need to leave the device unplugged until after you have exported the .csv file to the SD card.
This is not a "sync", but I haven't able to make sync work with many of the 3rd party apps out there so this is what I'll use until someone gets it right.