I just looked at an app called SuperStatus Bar. You can change the font type and color, but not size. That is zero help. There's also a Premium version of it but I didn't bother buying. There was nothing explicit about increasing font size of the time or the size of the icons.
Edit: However, I have seen at least one (ugly) theme with a different font size. Maybe it was just a different font which happened to appear bigger. Here.