I see that there are only a few posts about this online but no solutions without using apps. I called Verizon and told them the issues. They actually had to go back to way earlier models to solve this issue. To get out of car dock mode do the following:
Plug in your phone to your charger.
Turn off your phone.
Turn on your phone.
Place a call. While in call, remove your charging cable from your phone (wiggling it a little did the trick for me).
End the call.
The steering wheel icon should be gone and your phone should be back to normal.
Sent from my SCH-I510 using DroidForums